#1 Yannick Carrasco Madrid Jersey von gsnoopy520 13.10.2018 08:41

drinks generally contain caffeine Jaroslav Halak Islanders Jersey , taurine, sugars and sweeteners, herbal supplements, and other ingredients and are distinct from sports drinks and vitamin waters. In 2008, the National Federation of State High School Associations, while recommending water and sports drinks for rehydration, specifically did not recommend energy drinks and cited potential risks Brock Nelson Islanders Jersey , the absence of benefit, and drug interactions.

Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use.
However, in the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved Anders Lee Islanders Jersey , and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.

“Energy drinks” are beverages that contain caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal supplements, and sugar or sweeteners and are marketed to improve energy, weight loss, stamina Cal Clutterbuck Islanders Jersey , athletic performance, and concentration. Energy drinks are available in >140 countries and are the fastest growing US beverage market; in 2011, sales are expected to top $9 billion. Half of the energy drink market consists of children (<12 years old), adolescents (12–18 years old), and young adults (19–25 years old).

Although healthy of you can tolerate caffeine in moderation, heavy caffeine consumption, such as drinking energy drinks Josh Bailey Islanders Jersey , has been associated with serious side effects such as seizures, mania, stroke, and sudden death. Moreover, numerous reports exist in the popular media, and there are a handful of case reports in the literature that associate such adverse events with energy drink consumption; though, it is prudent to investigate the validity of such claims. In addition Jordan Eberle Islanders Jersey , Children, especially those with cardiovascular, renal, or liver disease, seizures, diabetes, mood and behavioral disorders Nick Leddy Islanders Jersey , or hyperthyroidism or those who take certain medications, may be at higher risk for adverse events from energy drink consumption.

Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits caffeine content in soft drinks, which are categorized as food, there is no such regulation of energy drinks, which are classified as dietary supplements. Despite the large, unregulated market for energy drinks and reports in the literature and popular media of serious adverse events associated with their consumption, research into their use and effects has been sparse. However Anthony Beauvillier Womens Jersey , schools, states, and countries increasingly are exploring content and sales regulations of these drinks.

Given the rapidly growing market and popularity among youth, we reviewed the literature to
(1) determine what energy drinks are,
(2) compile consumption data of energy drinks by children, adolescents, and young adults Casey Cizikas Womens Jersey ,
(3) compile caffeine and energy drink overdose data,
(4) examine the physiologic effects of the ingredients in energy drinks,

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